New Hampshire Gazette
Thursday October 21 1756
To maturate the juices it is necessary to collect the apples into heaps, in an open airy part of the orchard, unsheltered from the rain and dews, which instead of doing harm, will dilute the juices and promote a fresher fermentation. Apples of various kinds which have dropped from the tree, are to be gathered up and laid in a heap by themselves, and may be made into cyder after having lain about 10 days. Apples which have acquired some degree of maturity, and are gathered from the trees are to be laid in a heap by themselves for about a fortnight. The later hard fruits, which are to be left on the trees till the approach of frost is apprehended, are to be laid in a heap for a month or five weeks, by which they will receive such a maturation as they could not have attained on the trees. The riper and mellower the fruits are at time of laying them in heaps, the shorter be their continuance there, and the harsher immature and harder they are, the longer they should be left. In some counties the method is to make these heaps of apples in a house, or under some covering enclosed on every side; but this occasions a great lots of juices, a general rottenness rancid smell, and disagreeable taste. *
Various presses are in use, but none are compared to the great wring, or cyder press with two screws. The mechanism is so obvious that it needs no explanation. As the cyder runs from the press it is to be received into a vessel fixed within the ground, from whence as it fills it is to be ladled out and put into a cask with its head struck out, and a course hair sieve over it that the cyder may be strained and the grosser part of the pulp intercepted.
From this vessel it is transferred into a large open vat which will contain a whole pounding or making of cyder, or as much as can be pressed in one day. When the cyder has remained in this vat a day, or sometimes less, according to the ripeness of the fruit and state of the weather, the grosser parts of the pulp will rise to the top and in a day or two more grow very thick; and when little white bubbles of the size of the top of your finger break through, it is then , presently to be drawn off through a cork or faucet hole within 3 inches of the bottom, if large, but not nearer than four inches, if small, that the less may be left behind
If the cyder be not immediately drawn off on the first appearance of these white bubbles, all the head which is then thick crust, will sink to the bottom, and the making of sweet cyder will be lost.
On drawing off the cyder from the vat, it must be turned into close casks well scented. Upon letting it remain a longer or shorter time in these casks with the lees and impurities, the hardening of it depends.
To have cyder perfectly sweet, it is to be carefully watched after it is turned into close casks, and when the white bubbles arise at the bung hole, it is to be immediately racked off again into another clean and well scented cask, which operation is to be continued till the cyder ceases hissing, and is as sweet as you desire. Weaker cyders will only bear one or two rackings: But to make the bolder and stronger cyders soft, mellow and perfectly sweet, the rackings must be repeated till the fermentation ceases.
The manner of making rough cyder differs from that of the sweet, in this that the first appearance of the while bubbles may be disregarded, and the liquor not drawn off till the next separation. After the fermentation is over every hogshead must be filled up to the bung, once a month; if this be neglected the cyder will grow flat and heavy, and contract an ill taste and smell from the rancid air lodged in the vacuity. Vent should be sometimes given at a spile-hole for three months. Until it has done hissing, the bung hole would be best covered with a tile or flat stone, after that it should be closely bunged.
*Note, Grinding the apples too small produces acidity and bitterness.